July 11, 2020

Tunali Hilmi: An Outstanding Figure in the Process of Ideological Change from Ottomanism to Turkism

TUNALI HILMI: AN OUTSTANDING FIGURE IN THE PROCESS OF IDEOLOGICAL CHANGE FROM OTTOMANISM TO TURKISM Volume 1, No. 2 - July 1997 TUNALI HILMI: AN OUTSTANDING FIGURE IN THE PROCESS OF IDEOLOGICAL CHANGE FROM OTTOMANISM TO TURKISM By M. Lutfullah Karaman�?�?�?�?�?�??�?�??�?�?�?�??�?�??�?   In modern Turkish history, particularly toward the nineteenth century's end, quite a large number of Ottoman intellectuals, worried about the … [Read more...]

State, Islam, and Opposition in Saudi Arabia: The Post Desert Storm Phase

This article reviews the status of Saudi religious groups after the Second Gulf War. The historical roots of opposition to the monarchy are traced and it is noted that while the monarchy did consolidate its authority and adapt over time, groups critical of the government and its positions have occasionally appeared. Recently, economic leadership and security crises have given rise to a new opposition, unique in its combining Islamic and "modern" concepts. Thus far, as in the past, the regime has … [Read more...]

The Islamic Challenge in North Africa

A proper understanding of the Islamic challenge in Algeria and comparing the Algerian experience to Morocco and Tunisia is urgent. Not only is the Maghrib different than the Mashriq (Arab East), but experience within the Maghrib itself is highly varied. Algeria's sudden, wholesale adoption of a Western-style political liberalization program in 1989-91 was unprecedented in the Arab world. It included the unqualified legalization of explicitly Islamic political parties. No other Arab regime had … [Read more...]

Post Cold-War Turkish Security and the Middle East

During the Cold War, Turkish security was mostly shaped by its location as a neighbor of the Soviet Union. Soviet territorial demands on Turkey in 1945 and the threat of communism compelled Turkey to seek Western support for its defense. Once Turkey joined NATO in 1952, Turkish security policies were basically conducted in parallel with NATO's strategies. The sole exception to this was Turkey's conflict with Cyprus and Greece. In 1974, in response to the bicommunal violence in Cyprus, Turkey … [Read more...]

Turkey and the Newly Independent States of Central Asia and the Transcaucasus

This article assesses the role of various groups and individuals in affecting Turkish policy toward Central Asia and the Transcaucasus.(1) In recent years changing circumstances and opportunities have encouraged more groups to try to influence Turkish foreign policymaking. Turkish society is becoming more receptive to open debate as interest groups develop and are able to use new publications, television, and radio channels to promote views from almost across the political spectrum. This has … [Read more...]

Middle Eastern Diasporas: Introduction and Readings

A post-Cold War ethnic revival has been spurred by the demise of the USSR and its empire, liberalization and democratization. Despite historical patterns and predictions based on them, ethnic groups are not disappearing. They are also assimilating more slowly than many observers have expected. The variety of diasporas is also increasing as new groups form in Europe, the Western Hemisphere, and even the Middle East. (Chaliand and Rageau, 1995; Sowell, 1995) Moreover, ethnic minorities have … [Read more...]

Imperfect Alliances: Will the Gulf Monarchies Work Together?*

Formally speaking, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is a coherent alliance; but is it in fact so? The six GCC states (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman) have much in common: socioeconomic and political structures, political culture, and obsessions of security and threats. Although they differ in their perceptions of threats, the GCC states define security in a very narrow, one-dimensional way: as the status-quo continuity of the political … [Read more...]

Israel’s New Electoral System: Effects on Policy and Politics

In May 1996, Israel's elections were conducted under a new system which may have a significant influence not only on the country's constitutional structure but also on the nation's politics and even its policies. Prior to the most recent structural changes in the Israeli electoral system it was a fairly typical parliamentary structure. While Israel's version certainly had its share of idiosyncratic characteristics, the basic principles of parliamentary elections were evident in Israeli … [Read more...]

The Middle East Economies: The Impact of Domestic and International Politics

  Introduction More than three years have passed since the Oslo Accords were signed on the White House lawn and acclaimed as the harbingers of peace and prosperity to the Middle East. The prospects for peace have been widely discussed. My focus here is on the promise of Middle East prosperity. The Declaration of Principles (DOP) was followed by numerous Arab-Israeli meetings and multinational economic conferences (notably in Casablanca and Amman), the purposes of which were to forge … [Read more...]