September 11, 2020

Middle East States and the Approaching 21st Century

    Earlier in the century, many in the region adopted the Eurocentric term 'Middle East' to describe the area where they lived. Doing so marked an undeclared acknowledgement of Western superiority. That imbalance remains in force today, despite their achievements--the attainment of independence, withdrawal of imperial powers, and consolidation of national identities. Engaging in discussions regarding their place in the world entering the 21st century is another tacit … [Read more...]

Israel, the Palestinian Authority, and the Arab States

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For decades, the PLO depended on the Arab world’s diplomatic, financial, and military support to survive and to fight against Israel. Next to a stated determination to destroy Israel through violent means, the PLO Charter’s most important point was the claim that it had a right to demand the Arab states’ full support. This expectation was often disappointed. And whatever leverage the Palestinians once had was considerably eroded in the 1980s and 1990s by the PLO’s own … [Read more...]

Political Participation Patterns of Turkish Women

If a society does not wage a common struggle to attain a common goal with its women and men, scientifically there is no way for it to get civilized or developed.' -- Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Citizens participate politically to obtain a share in the allocation of social resources. But in the contemporary world we see an imbalance characterized by the relative underparticipation of women. We will evaluate reasons for this imbalance in Turkey then examine women's participation in elections, public … [Read more...]

New Directions in Middle East Deterrance: Implications for Arms Control

On a public level, the fundamental question of the Middle East WMD debate has always been about Israel's policy of retaining a nuclear option and the impact this policy has had on the decisions of other regional states to pursue other WMD options as a possible counter to Israel's decision. Certainly, this was the point of view espoused by many Arab states, most notably Egypt, in the talks held by the Arms Control and Regional Security Working Group (ACRS) of the multilateral peace … [Read more...]

Portrait of the New Israeli Soldier

In Israel, where sensitivity to possible risks inherent in the peace process is still high and where security concerns retain a priority, Yitzhak Rabin emphasized in an open letter to all personnel in the Israel Defense Force (IDF) in June 1992:   'We...shall no leave no stone upturned on the road to peace....As far as you are concerned, the possibility of peace can mean only one thing: the strengthening of the security framework....It is the task of statesmen to bring peace. Your task … [Read more...]

Radical Islamic Political Groups in Turkey

Most observers in Turkey and abroad have viewed the Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) as the main threat to the Turkish state's national unity and defense.(1) Despite recent interest in the Islamic fundamentalist Welfare Party (Refah Partisi, RP) growth, hardly any research examines the even more radical, violent Islamic movements in Turkey. (2) These most extreme groups are largely ignored because of their small size and apparently limited threat. (3) It has been argued that the marginality of … [Read more...]

Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction and the 1997 Gulf Crisis

The purpose of this study is to: 1) Describe the unconventional agents and delivery systems that Iraq retains and the very considerable threat they pose. This fact has been regularly reported by UNSCOM since late 1995, but only now has international attention been drawn to this issue. 2) Analyze the crisis and international response. It will suggest Iraq is trying to secure an end to sanctions while retaining large quantities of proscribed agents, by attacking and politicizing UNSCOM. … [Read more...]