February 25, 2021

The Gulf States and the American Umbrella

      Volume 4, No. 4 - December 2000 THE GULF STATES AND THE AMERICAN UMBRELLA By Jon B. Alterman Editor's Summary:  While U.S. policy in the Gulf can claim many successes in the 1990s, it now needs to be readjusted in light of changing conditions. Both Iran and Iraq are gradually escaping the web of sanctions created in earlier years. Saudi Arabia and the other Gulf Arab monarchies are increasingly using Iran to counter Iraq, accepting Iraq's return to the Arab … [Read more...]

Japan and the Middle East: Signs of Change?

  Volume 4, No. 4 - December 2000 JAPAN AND THE MIDDLE EAST: SIGNS OF CHANGE? By Alan Dowty Editor's Summary: Japan is dependent on Middle East oil and is one of the world's strongest economies. Yet its political involvement in the Middle East has been quite limited. There are signs though that Japan is becoming more active in the region. This article traces the history of Japan's economic and political role in the region, including the effect of Japanese perceptions and the effects … [Read more...]

Armenia and the Middle East

      Volume 4, No. 4 - December 2000 Armenia and the Middle East By Gayane Novikova Editor's Summary: The South Caucasus region--consisting of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia--can be said to be the new, northern extension of the Middle East. Armenia must maneuver between the rivalries and alliance systems of Iran, Russia, Turkey, and the United States to find a stable role in this new system. Local disputes and conflicting interests make this a difficult task. Yet the … [Read more...]

The Russians Were Coming: The Soviet Military Threat in the1967 Six-Day War

  Volume 4, No. 4 - December 2000 The Russians Were Coming: The Soviet Military Threat in the 1967 Six-Day War By Isabella Ginor Editor's Summary: New evidence reveals that during the 1967 Six-Day War the Soviet Union set in motion military operations to assist Egypt and especially Syria, first in seeking to overcome Israel and then in response to Israel?s pre-emptive attack. These potential steps included a naval landing, airborne reinforcement and air support for ground … [Read more...]

Fethullah Gulen and His Liberal “Turkish Islam” Movement

      Volume 4, No. 4 - December 2000 FETHULLAH GULEN AND HIS LIBERAL "TURKISH ISLAM" MOVEMENT By Bulent Aras and Omer Caha Editor's Summary:   The Turkish Islamist movement of Fethullah Gulen is one of the most interesting examples of liberal Islamist thinking in the Middle East. Gulen and his followers have tried to produce a religious-political movement favoring modernism, Turkish nationalism, tolerance, and democracy without sacrificing religious precepts. … [Read more...]

Rabbi Ovadya Yosef and his “Culture War” in Israel

  Volume 4, No. 4 - December 2000 RABBI OVADIA YOSEF AND HIS "CULTURE WAR" IN ISRAEL By Omar Kamil Editor's Summary: Rabbi Ovadia Yosef has emerged as one of the most powerful figures on Israel's political and cultural scene. Aside from trying to organize Sephardi Jews politically, he has sought to gain equality or even superiority for Sephardi religious interpretations. In these efforts, he has enjoyed a fair degree of success and has changed Israeli society and the … [Read more...]

Saddam Husayn: Between his Power Base and the International Community

  Volume 4, No. 4 - December 2000 SADDAM HUSAYN BETWEEN HIS POWER BASE AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY By Amatzia Baram*   Editor's Summary: Iraq has continued to survive international sanctions and attempts to isolate itself in the decade following the war over Kuwait. Iraqi President Saddam Hussein has used Islam and tribalism to maintain power at home, while playing off other countries and seeking humanitarian sympathy to weaken the opposition to his regime from … [Read more...]

Palestinian Military Performance and the 2000 Intifada

  Volume 4, No. 4 - December 2000 PALESTINIAN MILITARY PERFORMANCE AND THE 2000 INTIFADA By Gal Luft Editor's Summary:  Violent confrontations between Palestinians and Israeli forces raise the question of the effectiveness and role played by Palestinian police/military forces. The article finds that these units have improved training and weaponry. But their institutional conflicts inhibit their performance. Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat keeps tight control over them … [Read more...]