September 11, 2020

French Trade and Sanctions Against Iran

The French economic presence in Iran changed direction after the passage of the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA) by the United States in 1996. In 2006, this act was subject to two major changes: first, sanctions against Libya were lifted; and second, the legislation was extended until 2011 under its new title, the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA). The new act implemented progressive sanctions against businesses investing in major Iranian sectors, in particular the energy sector. These sanctions included … [Read more...]

German-Kuwaiti Relations: From Their Beginnings to the Reunification of Germany

[1]  In 1752, the al-Sabah family from central Arabia established a trading post in the Persian Gulf. Shortly after Sabah bin Jabir was elected as the first emir in 1756, Europeans discovered “the Little Fort.” The German explorer Carsten Niebuhr mapped it as "Koueit" in 1772, referring to it as "A township a three-day trip away" from Zubair.[2] Another German explorer, Ulrich Jasper Seetzen, mentioned a British trading post there, while geographer Karl Ritter marked Kuwait's … [Read more...]

Art in Israel, 1948-2008: A Partial Panorama

The conjunctional term “Israeli art” indicates a theoretical dependence among art, the state, and the nation.  In fact, Israel’s May 1948 declaration of independence took place in the building that housed the Tel Aviv Museum of Art.  The neutral space of art thus became the legal space of the official birth of the Israeli nation.The foundation of the Bezalel School in Jerusalem in 1906 is considered by Israeli art historians as the beginning of Israeli art.[#1] The … [Read more...]

Where Is Turkey Going and Why?: A Panel Discussion

Brief biographies of the participants can be found at the end of the article. This seminar is part of the GLORIA Center's Experts Forum series. Prof. Barry Rubin: Turkey is always interesting, always important, but right now it is even more interesting and more important. The question is the country's direction. The current regime, which has been in power long enough and has won enough elections by large margins, is getting more confident. It is doing what it wants, rather than being restrained … [Read more...]

Women in Algeria Today and the Debate over Family Law

The legal status as well as the private and public role of women is a central issue in Algeria today. The relationship between men and women is of political, social, and economic importance and a matter of national identity. According to historian Daho Djerbal, “The subaltern status of women can serve as an indicator for all other inequalities.”[#1] Discriminatory laws, social exclusion, and violence against women are enduring themes of public discourse and opinions how to address … [Read more...]

Demography in the Middle East: Population Growth Slowing, Women’s Situation Unresolved

In the Middle East, as in much of the world, the demographic story of the past 50 years was rapid population growth, which placed a heavy burden on economies. Yet that is coming to an end, in no small part because of social changes, especially the modest progress toward women’s empowerment. The Middle East is now making a “demographic transition” that offers the prospect of twin “demographic dividends” if governments can create the right environment--first the … [Read more...]

Varieties of Islamism in Yemen: The Logic of Integration Under Pressure

In the spring of 2005 in a remote corner of former South Yemen, the driver of an old Toyota Land Cruiser displayed two seemingly opposite pictures on his windshield. The first showed Ali Abdallah Salih, the president of Yemen since July 1978 and a new ally of the United States in the “War on Terror,” while the second depicted Usama bin Ladin, the world-famous embodiment of transnational terrorism. This reveals much about Yemeni society and its political system; nevertheless it can be … [Read more...]

Perceptions of the Middle East and the Gaza War: Views from Key Countries

CONTENTS Steven J. Rosen, “United States” Paul Michaels and Noah Shack, “Canada” Colin Rubinstein, “Australia” P R Kumaraswamy, “India” Heymi Bahar, “Turkey” Biographies of contributors can be found at the end of each section.   The perceptions of Western elites and publics, the policies of Western governments, toward the Middle East have always been viewed as vital to events in the region. Perhaps such concepts are … [Read more...]

Perceptions of the Middle East and the Gaza War: Views from Europe

The perceptions of Western elites and publics, and the policies of Western governments toward the Middle East have always been viewed as vital to events in the region. Perhaps such concepts are exaggerated, yet this subject is well worth examining. Thus, in the wake of the Gaza war, people from a number of European countries were asked to look at trends in the places where they live. Three levels are examined: the policies of governments, the attitudes of intellectual-media-cultural-journalistic … [Read more...]