August 13, 2020

Tactical Deception and Strategic Surprise in al-Qa’ida’s Operations

Volume 8, No. 2 - June 2004 Tactical Deception and Strategic Surprise in al-Qa'Ida's Operations By Richard H. Shultz, Jr. and Ruth Margolies Beitler How do Middle East terrorist organizations build deception tactics into their training to exploit the vulnerabilities of militarily superior opponents? This paper argues that al-Qa'ida has developed into the non-state equivalent of the counterintelligence (CI) state, using CI principles and practices in its strategy. The article examines … [Read more...]

Strategic Implications of the Iraq Insurgency

Volume 8, No. 2 - June 2004 Strategic Implications of the Iraq Insurgency By James A. Russell The stakes for the United States in the Iraq insurgency have grown since the end of major combat operations was declared more than a year ago, and it becomes steadily more difficult to maintain that it is fighting a few disaffected criminals, former regime loyalists and terrorists.  While each of these groups may be included in the various insurgent groups, the United States is now dealing … [Read more...]

Iran’s Struggle for Democracy Continues: An Evaluation of Twenty-Five Years After the Revolution

Volume 8, No. 2 - June 2004 IRAN'S STRUGGLE FOR DEMOCRACY CONTINUES:AN EVALUATION OF TWENTY-FIVE YEARS AFTER THE REVOLUTION By Ali Abootalebi The disqualification of thousands of reformist candidates by the Council of Guardians for the seventh parliamentary elections on February 20, 2021 has resulted, according to most observers, in Iran's most serious political crisis in the past twenty-five years. But is this the end of the reform movement? Even from the regime's standpoint, trying to … [Read more...]

Iran, 25 Years Later: A GLORIA Center Roundtable Discussion

Volume 8, No. 2 - June 2004 Iran, 25 Years LaterA GLORIA Center Roundtable Discussion   On February 25, 2004, in conjunction with the U.S. State Department, the Global Research in International Affairs (GLORIA) Center held an international videoconferenced seminar on events in Iran. The seminar is part of the GLORIA Center's Experts Forum series. Participants' comments have been updated where necessary to reflect later events.      The seminar's purpose was to … [Read more...]

An Analytical and Historical Overview of British Policy Toward Israel


The British relationship with Israel and attitude toward the Arab-Israel conflict are crucial but often misunderstood aspects of that country's Middle East policy. Constituting the most controversial, disputatious aspect of British policy toward the region, they are influenced by broader currents both in terms of British attitudes toward the Middle East region and differing British conceptions of international relations and the making of foreign policy. This paper explores Britain's relations … [Read more...]

The Islamic Da’wa Party: Past Development and Future Prospects

Volume 8, No. 2 - June 2004 THE ISLAMIC DA'WA PARTY:PAST DEVELOPMENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS By Rodger Shanahan The invasion of Iraq and its subsequent occupation by U.S.-led forces has allowed the majority Shi'a population to assert itself politically. Much of the debate regarding their political development has focused on the role of the religious scholars, at the expense of other Shi'a political groups. The Da'wa party is the main party not headed by a scholar, and has the longest … [Read more...]

Armored Breakthrough: The 1965 American Sale of Tanks to Israel

Volume 8, No. 2 - June 2004 ARMORED BREAKTHROUGH:THE 1965 AMERICAN SALE OF TANKS TO ISRAEL By David Rodman In late July 1965, the United States sold 210 M-48 Patton tanks to Israel. Though the Kennedy administration had already agreed to provide Israel with heavy weapons, this sale constituted the first occasion on which the United States consented to transfer offensive arms. The Johnson administration's decision to do so proved to be a complex one, motivated by a number of interrelated … [Read more...]